Threats to Abortion Rights Should Be Challenged American Civil Liberties Union At Issue: Should Abortion Rights Be Restricted? Auriana Ojeda Greenhaven Press 2003 Viewpoint A woman's decision whether or not to bear a child is one of the most intimate and important decisions she will ever make. Like decisions about contraception, marriage, and child-rearing, the decision to continue or to end a pregnancy is protected from government interference by the U.S. Constitution. Securing full reproductive freedom for all women, regardless of age or economic status, remains among the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) highest priorities. The long march toward reproductive rights The road to a woman's right to choose has been a long and arduous one. Although abortion was not a crime in this country until the mid-1800s, by the century's end, it was banned in every state. By 1930, an estimated 800,000 illegal abortions were taking place annually, resulting in 8,000-17,000 women's deaths each year. The terrible suffering of tens of thousands of women and their families from botched, back alley abortions moved early reformers like Alan Guttmacher to call for legalization. A major breakthrough occurred in 1965 when the U.S. Supreme Court struck down a Connecticut law that made it illegal even for married couples to obtain birth control devices. In Griswold v. Connecticut, the Court ruled that the ban on contraception violated the constitutional right to "marital privacy." In 1972, the Court extended the right to use contraceptives to all people, married or single. These cases laid the foundation for a constitutional challenge to abortion bans. Between 1967 and 1971, under mounting pressure from the women's rights movement, 17 states decriminalized abortion. Public opinion also shifted during this period. In 1968, only 15 percent of Americans favored legal abortions; by 1972, 64 percent did. When the Court announced its landmark 1973 ruling legalizing abortion in Roe v. Wade, it was marching in step with public opinion. But the backlash was swift and fierce. Anti-choice forces quickly mobilized, dedicating themselves to reversing Roe. In 1974 the ACLU established its Reproductive Freedom Project to advance a broad spectrum of reproductive rights and to resist the anti-choice movement's efforts to undermine women's privacy and equality. The post-Roe struggle The landmark Roe v. Wade decision was based on the constitutional right to privacy-a right the Court found "is broad enough to encompass a woman's decision whether or not to terminate her pregnancy." Characterizing this right as "fundamental" to a woman's "life and future," the Court held that the state could not interfere with the abortion decision unless it had a compelling reason for regulation. A compelling interest in protecting the potential life of the fetus could be asserted only once it became "viable" (usually at the beginning of the last trimester of pregnancy), and even then a woman had to have access to an abortion if it were necessary to preserve her life or health. The right to choose has dramatically improved the health of individual women by freeing them from the dangers of illegal abortions. It has also improved the quality of women's lives generally, for, as the Supreme Court stated in reaffirming Roe v. Wade in 1992, "The ability of women to participate equally in the economic and social life of the Nation has been facilitated by their ability to control their reproductive lives." The Supreme Court's 1992 decision in Planned Parenthood v. Casey was the next legal milestone for reproductive choice. In the face of massive anti-choice pressure, the Court preserved constitutional protection for the right to choose. At the same time however, the Court adopted a new and weaker test for evaluating restrictive abortion laws. Under the "undue burden test," state regulations can survive constitutional review so long as they do not place a "substantial obstacle in the path of a woman seeking an abortion of a nonviable fetus." The Casey decision has forced the ACLU and other pro-choice groups to fight legal battles in courts all over the country over whether or not a particular restriction constitutes a "substantial obstacle." In many cases, the courts have been cruelly insensitive to the problems of real women. More burdens for low-income women For decades, opponents of choice have pursued a strategy of imposing special burdens on the most politically powerless women. The Medicaid program, through which the government provides health services to needy people, has long covered all other pregnancy-related services, but the federal government and most states severely restrict Medicaid funding for abortion. As a result, low-income women often find it difficult, if not impossible, to exercise their constitutional right to have safe and legal abortions. In 1980, the Supreme Court upheld this discriminatory scheme, but in a series of state constitutional cases, advocates for low-income women have successfully argued that when the government provides funding to support the exercise of constitutional rights, it must fund all options evenhandedly, leaving the ultimate choice where it belongs-in the hands of the pregnant woman. These state court victories have made it possible for 40% of Medicaid-eligible women in the U.S. to have access to public funding for abortion. Women who rely exclusively on the federal government for their health care coverage cannot benefit from state constitutional arguments, however. Through various restrictions on federal appropriations, Congress denies abortion coverage to most federal employees and their dependents, military personnel and their dependents, federal prisoners, Peace Corps volunteers, Native American women, and low-income women who reside in Washington, D.C. Congress has thus created a two-tiered health care system in which women who depend on the government do not have the same rights as those who can afford an abortion or who have private insurance. In 1991, the Supreme Court upheld regulations forbidding the staffs of federally funded family planning programs from even mentioning abortion as a medical option. This "gag rule" on abortion counseling and referral never took effect because former president Bill Clinton rescinded the regulations, but similar gag rules continue to be proposed and have been enforced against organizations that receive U.S. dollars to provide family planning services overseas. The government has even tried to use its spending power to pressure women not to have children. Under the mantle of "welfare reform," state governments are experimenting with policies known as "child exclusions" or "family caps." Aimed at discouraging childbearing by low-income women, child exclusions deny subsistence benefits to children born into families already receiving aid. Because the government has no more business punishing childbearing than restricting abortion, the enforcement of child exclusions violates low-income women's right to choose. Targeting young women More than half of the states currently enforce laws that require minors to get permission from their parents or from a court before they can obtain abortions, and many state and local governments continue to deny teenagers the information and services they need to avoid unwanted pregnancies. Parental involvement laws serve only to deepen the desperation of teenagers already in crisis. While most teenagers who are considering abortion talk to their parents about their decision, some cannot or will not go to their parents no matter what the law says. They fear physical abuse, violence between their parents, being thrown out of the house, or triggering a parent's drug or alcohol problem, among other scenarios. The alternative of going to court for judicial authorization for an abortion is often daunting or futile, and increasing numbers of minors are traveling across state lines for abortions or resorting to dangerous illegal or self-induced procedures. The Supreme Court has upheld parental consent and notification laws, but has required that they conform to specific constitutional standards. Careless legislative drafting has led to successful federal challenges. These laws are also beginning to fall under the state constitutions. In 1997, the Supreme Court of California became the third state high court in the nation to hold a parental consent law inconsistent with the state's constitutional privacy protections. Those who have long sought to make abortion inaccessible to minors are now stepping up their attacks on minors' access to contraception and sexuality education. Proposals to require parental consent for contraceptive services to minors were debated in the 1997 and 1998 Congressional terms and have been cropping up in the state legislatures. If these proposals become law, they will scare many sexually active teenagers away from the family planning clinics that may be their only source of confidential reproductive health care, leaving them vulnerable to higher rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS. The proponents of "abstinence-only" sexuality education made gains in 1996 when Congress appropriated $250 million over five years for educational programs that have as their "exclusive purpose, teaching the social, psychological, and health gains to be realized by abstaining from sexual activity." Because such programs must omit any instruction on how to make sex safer, they leave sexually active teenagers unprepared to protect themselves and their partners. While it is important to stress the benefits of abstinence, it is equally important to address the pressing needs of students who reject that lesson. Banning safe abortion procedures The latest tactic of the anti-choice movement is to promote so-called "partial-birth abortion" bans. Although these bans are the most widely debated abortion restrictions of the past decade, they are perhaps also the least well understood. The bans' proponents have launched an intensive campaign to portray them as directed against a "single," "late," "gruesome" abortion procedure. The media have adopted and parroted this description. Yet it is wholly inaccurate. Doctors all over the country have testified, and courts all over the country have found, that the language of the bans is broad enough to encompass the safest and most common methods of abortion. Because the bans are thus directed more at abortion in general than at any discrete procedure, they threaten the core right of reproductive choice. Congress has twice passed, and former president Clinton has twice vetoed, the federal "partial-birth abortion" ban. In his 1996 veto message, Clinton said he could not sign a bill that reflected "Congressional indifference to women's health."... Meanwhile, as the debate drones on in Washington, more than two dozen states have enacted copycat bans. Federal and state constitutional challenges to these state bans are underway throughout the country. In the overwhelming majority of cases, the courts have invalidated the bans. Court after court has identified three main constitutional flaws. First, the language of the bans is so vague that doctors cannot tell with any certainty what conduct is forbidden. Second, the bans lack adequate exceptions to protect women's lives and health. Third, the bans unduly burden the right of reproductive choice by prohibiting the performance of safe and common abortion procedures. These resounding victories in the nation's trial courts are under review in several courts of appeal. Erosion of access to reproductive health services Gaining access to reproductive health services has become increasingly difficult. The states have enacted a web of restrictions that make it more difficult and costly for women to obtain abortions. They include requirements for biased counseling that is intended to dissuade women from having abortions; mandatory waiting periods; and excessive, medically unnecessary regulation of abortion providers. Another barrier to access is the severe shortage of abortion providers. Frightened by anti-choice harassment and violence, many doctors have stopped providing abortions altogether. Eighty-six percent of U.S. counties now have no abortion provider. The shortage is compounded by a persistent lack of adequate abortion training in the nation's medical schools. There are not enough young doctors with both the skills and the courage to step into the void. Many hospitals have ceased to provide abortion as well. The increasingly frequent mergers between religiously affiliated hospitals and non-sectarian hospitals exacerbate the problem. Such mergers often result in the reduction of reproductive health services because of doctrinal restrictions that the religiously affiliated partner attempts to impose on the new merged entity. Typically, these doctrinal restrictions prohibit hospitals from providing abortion, sterilization, contraceptive services, AIDS prevention services, many types of infertility treatments, and even the "morning-after pill" for rape victims. In 1989 Justice Harry Blackmun, who wrote the opinion in Roe v. Wade, issued a heartfelt dissent from a decision upholding the constitutionality of an array of abortion restrictions. He expressed his fear that, in allowing the government to intrude further and further into the private realm of decisions about reproduction, the Court "casts into darkness the hopes and visions of every woman in this country who had come to believe that the Constitution guaranteed her the right to exercise some control over her unique ability to bear children." The darkness has not yet descended. But the defense of women's reproductive freedom requires constant vigilance.
Tired of seeing your ugly facial features, small breasts, or flabby body every time you look in the mirror? Are you fed up with the names mean people throw at your face just because you are far from being perfect? If you are, then worry no more because todays advancements in surgical procedures make it possible for not-so-perfect people to transform into the flawless gal and bloke they always dream about. What is cosmetic surgery?Today, cosmetic surgery has become widely available for everyone. Celebrities and the elite are the only ones then who can afford this type of surgical procedure. With the thousands of service offerings and authorized clinics to choose from, more and more people are now patronizing these treatments to enhance their looks. This surgical procedure generally focuses on the goal of providing physical reconstructions to those who want to redefine their looks. It can totally change or reconstruct almost every part and feature of the human body that is deformed, damaged, or disfigured. Cosmetic surgery has different variations; these are breast cosmetic surgery, lip cosmetic surgery, weight loss cosmetic surgery, nose cosmetic surgery, cosmetic chin surgery, cosmetic eye surgery, as well as cosmetic dental surgery. Pre-surgery checklistThe following are the things you need to consider before undergoing any type of cosmetic surgery: 1. Know and understand the procedures and cost of the surgeryIt is imperative for you to fully understand the process, post-surgery therapy, risks, consequences, and results of the procedure before deciding if cosmetic surgery is what you really need to enhance your looks. The Internet today has numerous information regarding the said surgical operation, so researching about it should not be a problem. Also, knowing the estimated cost of the entire procedure is also a must. This helps you to determine if you can afford the surgical treatment that you intend to undergo. 2. Find an experienced, skilled, and reputed cosmetic surgeonAfter researching and understanding the procedure of the surgery, the next thing you need to do is to find a reputable and well-experienced cosmetic surgeon who will perform the operation. Also by utilizing the Internet, finding a good surgeon is easy, for numerous websites feature information on thousands of cosmetic surgeons worldwide. Consulting your friends who already underwent cosmetic surgical treatments is also a best way for you to look for competent doctors. 3. Educate yourself on the healing processAs you meet and schedule your surgery with your chosen surgeon, make sure to ask and understand the healing procedures as well as know the treatments that will help speed up your recovery. Furthermore, it is equally a must for you to be aware of the risks and complications of a cosmetic surgical procedure before agreeing to undergo a surgery. The following are the risks and complications involved in the process of cosmetic surgery: 1. Unsuccessful outcome of the operationAmong the risks associated with cosmetic surgery, an unsuccessful result is probably the worst thing that could happen. Surgeons always show images of the post-operation to patients before the surgery. However, there are instances when things do not end up as expected. Unsuccessful surgeries do happen in cosmetic operations. 2. Complications due to the use of anesthesiaJust like in any type of surgery, cosmetic operations may also have complications on the use of anesthesia. The patient may have abrupt reaction to the anesthesia used in the procedure.
Math anxiety has been the concern of most students. Staring at blank papers, constant head scratching, and shaky hands these are the usual scenarios in a person that is having problems with math. It has been the mission of math educators to present math in the easiest way possible. Aside from the usually tedious teaching method, more and more techniques and modes are being presented to students for them to like math. However, not everybody bites in the math reel. No matter how math educator presentthe subject, mathematical concepts just wont sink in to the minds of the students. So where does the problem reside? In the lousy student who, no matter how you teach math, seems to stare at you aimlessly. Maybe, it's the complicated formula, that no matter how people try to simplify it, the problem itself is intricately difficult. Or maybe, we can blame the incompetent instructors who, instead presenting math to be a breeze, confuse the students with the way they present the subject.Our mind is the math anxiety battleground, therefore, as according to studies, we should first uproot the clutters called math myths. These are concepts that are inculcated in the minds of the students that fuel their skepticism and inhibits proactive actions towards trouncing the fear over math. 1 problem = 1 solution. Students are accustomed that to answer math problems, they must memorize the formula. This is not entirely true. Though we must answer the problem using the formula as the guide, math educators encourage students not only to memorize the problem but more so, understand the problem. In understanding the problem, you can easily derive an alternative formula that you can use aside from what your math professor teaches you. With more options in your mind, the lesser the possibility to have math anxiety. Remember that there are other possibilities to be explored rather the memorizing the formula. Average people = a hopeless case. This is idea has long pestered and discouraged the minds of the students. They believe that those who are mathematically-inclined are the only ones who are destined for math excellence. While there are students who were born to be mathematically gifted, still, most people who have acquired mathematical fame brag not on genes but on hard work and perseverance.People who constantly feel inferior because of math inadequacy also suffer social anxiety. This is characterized to be the fear socializing or being evaluated by peers. In this light, instead of pressing on they contend themselves on being average.Math = Males. This sexist notion has been the tradition to many. This tells us that while female students excel in English subjects, male students dominates the math world. No matter on what angle we look at it, and considering the present scenario, this myth is no longer applicable as female students have already proven their worth in math-related subjects. Math anxiety, is a real problem that has long pestered the minds of the students. And with the addition of being compared to math geniuses, a form a social anxiety; this further complicates the problem. That is why it is always wiser to overcome it first, before trying any other math-promoting formula, to tame the mind and get rid of myths that will not help us in overcoming the math phobia. As what they always say, all of those mathematical myths are all in the mind.
Hypnotherapy is the use of hypnosis to treat patients who are in pain or who are having problems within their minds. Those who use hypnotherapy believe that patients who enter a trance are much more likely to listen to suggestions which are given to them. Some conditions which are treated by hypnotherapy are pain, stress,obesity, stress, and amnesia. While many of these conditions are related to the mind, some functional ailments can be treated as well. Hypnotherapy is a practice that was used by the Ancient Egyptians and Indians. In these societies the practice would often have a religious tone, and both music and dance was included in the practice.It wasn't until the 19th century that a number of healers begin developing the methods that would come to be known as hypnosis. Franz Anton Mesmer developed a theory which has come to be known as animal magnetism. He did extensive research on hysteria, and his studies indicated that advanced cases were similar to what is called a post-traumatic stress disorder. The work of Sigmund Freud also played an important role in the development of hypnotherapy. There are a number of criticisms which have been made against the practice.Some believe that the connection between the patient and the therapist may cause problems. The patient may want to please the therapist, or they may worry that the therapist doesn't like them. However, many of these claims are inconsistent because hypnotherapy will generally take place in a medical facility. There are a number of common techniques that are used in this practice. One of the primary techniques is age regression. The hypnotist will attempt to mentally return the patient to a previous state, and this will often be done to help the patient gain something that they have lost.The second technique that is commonly used in hypnotherapy is called revivification. In this technique, the hypnotist will help the patient remember previous experiences they've had. As an example, the hypnotist may ask a patient if they have ever been fishing, and if they have been, they will begin recalling the time that they went fishing, and there will be no need for the hynotist to create a new state. Another common method that is used in hypnotherapy is called a guided imagery. With this technique, the hypnotist will guide the patient through a pleasant experience. The hypnotist may often repeat certain ideas or concepts in order to get the patient to accept them, and this is called repetition.In general, people are more relaxed when they are in a dream state. When a person is able to visualize something they desire, research has shown that it is much more likely that they will obtain it. In this situation, the goal of the hypnotist is to help the patient achieve a desired goal. The word Hypnotherapy is based off the word "Hypnos," and this was the name of the Greek god of sleep. This technique has primarily been used to help people on a mental level, and was not well understood until the 19th century.
Question : Which part of rice that makes face firming and glowing ?Answer : It is the rice germ because there are plentiful minerals, unsaturated fatty acid and vitamins especially the natural vitamin E which is in high quantity as Tocols (Tocopherol & Tocotrienol), Gamma-Qryzanol and Ceramide. These substances are useful and valuable to human skin cells since they help protect the skin from being damaged by UVA and UVB which are the cause of melasma, freckle and skin cancer. They also help protect and reduce pain from a sunburn, nourish the skin with moisturizer, revitalize the skin and diminish wrinkles, fine line and dryness. Tocols : The natural vitamin E as Tocopherol and Tocotrienol are very good for health since they are the anti-oxidant substances while free radicals are the main cause of cancer. Gamma-Qryzanol : It is the active ingredient in supplementary diet and cosmetics. It can reduce cholesterol level, reduce constriction of blood vessels, improve blood circulation, cure the abnormal symptoms of menopausal women, reduce stress, function as anti-oxidant substances, protect the skin from UV and nourish the skin with moisturizer. Qryza Ceramide : It is Sphingo lipids which are normally in the subcutaneous layer making the skin flexible. If the quantity of Ceramide decreases, the skin will become dry and wrinkled. Thus, Ceramide should be always sufficiently added to body by taking in or applying lotion to the skin.